The volume of the sample must be defined evidently, because larger samples makes the findings more consistent, but at the same time it takes more time in managing or publicizing the survey. Sampling is quite scientific and hence there are clear cut ways of sampling. There are two major categories of sampling in quantitative research known as Probability and Non-probability Sampling.
a) Probability Sampling
There are two main types of Probability Sampling called as Random Sampling and Stratified Random Sampling. Random sampling is a process where individuals are selected randomly within a given population, whereas stratified sampling is a process where individuals are selected from jointly exclusive groups, i.e. the individuals selected belong to only one group of individual’s for example teenagers, or middle age people, or old age people. All of the selection depends upon the kind of research conducted.
b) Non-Probability Sampling
Again non-probability sampling also have lots of methods, where convenience sampling is a commonly used technique. In this method, the sample consists of individuals who are easily available; this method is usually adopted for a smaller research work, as it is not scientific. Secondly, Referral sampling is another popular method used by researchers. In this method the sample size is large and it keeps on increasing quickly.
Therefore understanding and choosing the right sampling technique is a must for a PhD. researcher. Sampling methods are considered as backbone of any kind of research. Consequently, there must be right target audience selected to get good results.